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Warehouse Management

B2B Fulfillment: Process, Use Cases and Comparisons, Explained

This detailed guide discusses B2B Order Fulfillment, its process, use cases, and comparisons.

Team Hopstack
February 2, 2024

In this blog

B2B fulfillment is the process of handling bulk orders from businesses or retailers rather than individual consumers. The fulfillment process includes everything from order receipt to delivery at a business location. B2B order fulfillment usually handles lower order volumes but with more products per order. 

Over the years, B2B fulfillment has evolved by adapting to the changing demands of global trade and technological advancements. It has transitioned from traditional, manual operations to more sophisticated, technology-driven processes, enhancing operational efficiency and accuracy in the B2B sector. 

This article will outline the critical aspects of B2B fulfillment to understand its role in contemporary commerce better and explore how it's reshaping the landscape of business transactions and logistics.

B2B Fulfillment vs. B2C Fulfillment: Key Differences

While B2B order fulfillment services focus on delivering to businesses or retailers, B2C fulfillment involves shipping the products directly to the end consumers. The order fulfillment process may involve the same steps on paper, but the logistics can vary considerably, especially regarding shipping, SLAs, speed, cost to fulfill, and more. The key differences between B2B fulfillment and B2C fulfillment are:

End Customer

B2B fulfillment primarily caters to businesses such as retailers, manufacturing facilities, wholesalers, and other commercial entities. These customers often place bulk orders with complex requirements that necessitate a nuanced approach to managing these relationships. For instance, interactions with retailers might involve negotiating terms for recurring bulk purchases, while dealing with manufacturing facilities often requires adhering to strict delivery schedules to maintain their production lines.

In contrast, B2C fulfillment is geared towards individual consumers, where the focus is on personalization and expedited delivery. This direct-to-customer approach is more transactional, with the product shipped straight to residential or commercial locations. However, the landscape is evolving, with an increasing number of B2B businesses adopting personalized approaches across various sales channels. The number of channels B2B buyers use has doubled from 5 to 10 by 2021, with the omnichannel sales model being widely regarded as the most effective.

The nature of the end customer in B2B scenarios also dictates the payment terms, the length of contractual relationships, and Service Level Agreements (SLAs). For example, a long-term contract with a wholesaler might include specific SLAs regarding order accuracy and delivery times, while a one-time bulk order from a retailer may have different payment and delivery terms. This is in contrast to B2C transactions, which are typically more straightforward and less varied in terms of contract complexity.

Inventory Volumes

In B2B transactions, the inventory volumes are typically larger compared to B2C. B2B orders are often in bulk and require a more robust inventory management system to handle complex and large quantities of products. Depending on specific business requirements, B2B order fulfillment services may require customized packaging and labeling, specific shipping requirements, and strict delivery deadlines.

On the other hand, B2C fulfillment deals with smaller, more frequent orders where the products are directly delivered to the customers. While delivering larger volumes of individual orders is more straightforward, businesses should be prepared to deal with increased demand during seasonal peaks and holiday seasons.

Order Frequency

In B2B fulfillment, most customers follow specific patterns regarding the delivery schedule, frequency of orders, and speed of fulfillment. B2B orders are more difficult to fulfill due to the sheer volume of products, and having a point of reference makes it easier for businesses to navigate the complexities of bulk fulfillment. 

This contrasts with B2C, where orders are more frequent but smaller in size, and order volumes can vary due to market demands. This variation impacts how inventory is managed and forecasted in both scenarios.

Shipping Methods and Arrangements

B2B shipping logistics are more complex, often involving palletized freight or truckloads, larger shipments, and less-than-truckload (LTL). The unique nature of B2B fulfillment means they have longer delivery times but must deliver within a fixed schedule. 

B2C fulfillment, on the other hand, usually relies on standard parcel carriers like USPS, UPS, and FedEx for expedited shipping. These parcel carriers are more economical when dealing with smaller and more frequent orders, and they prioritize speed, personalization, and convenience for the individual consumer.


B2B fulfillment often encounters more stringent regulations, especially when dealing with businesses across different countries or industries. These regulations impact various aspects of B2B fulfillment, including international shipping, handling of hazardous materials, shipping heavy items, electronic data interchange (EDI) for data privacy and safety, and more.

B2B compliance requirements can be more demanding than B2C, where consumer protection laws predominantly govern the transactions.

B2B Fulfillment: Use Cases Across Various Industries

B2B order fulfillment services have become essential for businesses across various industry verticals. Some common use cases of B2B order fulfillment are:

  • Wholesale and Distribution: This use case involves the bulk movement of goods from manufacturers to distributors or wholesalers, who then supply these products to retailers or other businesses. The efficiency of B2B fulfillment processes here is crucial to ensure timely delivery and inventory management, which is essential for maintaining the integrity of downstream supply chain operations.
  • Retail Replenishment: In retail replenishment, B2B fulfillment plays a vital role in restocking retail stores or outlets with products. This process demands precision in order fulfillment to ensure that retailers have the right products in the right quantities at the right time, avoiding stockouts or overstock situations.
  • Enterprise Procurement: Larger enterprises often require a consistent supply of materials, equipment, or products. B2B fulfillment in this context is about efficiently managing and executing these bulk orders, often involving complex logistics and adherence to stringent timelines and specifications.
  • Marketplace Prep and Fulfillment: This involves preparing and fulfilling orders for products sold on third-party marketplaces. Marketplace prep and fulfillment require a tailored approach to packaging, labeling, and ecommerce shipping, as these platforms often have specific requirements that must be met for successful fulfillment. This will be highly relevant when fulfillment centers are using marketplace model instead of inventory model.
Key Opportunities in Wholesale and Distribution as per Maturity Stage

B2B Order Fulfillment Process

Conceptually, B2B order fulfillment processes are similar to B2C fulfillment. However, businesses must understand some functional differences to navigate the unique complexities of B2B fulfillment.

Supplier Management

This initial stage involves identifying and collaborating with various suppliers, such as manufacturers and wholesalers. Effective supplier management ensures a steady and reliable supply of products. It involves negotiating terms, ensuring quality standards, and managing relationships to ensure a smooth flow of goods.

Purchase Orders

The creation and management of purchase orders are pivotal in B2B transactions. This step formalizes the demand for products, specifying quantities, prices, and delivery schedules according to performance guarantees. According to a survey by McKinsey, eight in ten B2B decision makers say they will actively look for a new supplier if their present one fails to meet SLAs.

Inbound Logistics

Goods are inspected for quality and quantity upon arrival. Efficient receiving processes prevent bottlenecks in the supply chain. Products are often received on pallets and are stored in a warehouse. Optimizing this process involves strategic placement of goods for easy access during order fulfillment.

A B2B warehouse management system can help businesses implement inventory optimization and data analytics to predict supply needs, significantly enhancing inbound efficiency.


Storing bulk products requires spacious warehouse facilities with pallet storage solutions. Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) are crucial for managing large volumes of products. They automate the storage and retrieval process, significantly improving the handling speed and fulfillment accuracy.

Order Fulfillment

B2B order fulfillment involves the following steps:

  • Order Processing: This involves retrieving orders from systems like ERPs or EDI. An efficient B2B order management workflow is essential for timely fulfillment.
  • Picking: Picking in B2B often involves pallet-level selections, which require different logistics than individual item picks in B2C.
  • Packaging and Palletization: The packaging process in B2B might include palletizing bulk orders. It’s important to note that investing in eco-friendly and sustainable packaging for B2B fulfillment can be worthwhile. Studies show customers are 4.3 times more likely to make a repeat purchase when businesses are sustainable and ESG-friendly.


Creating accurate B2B shipping manifests and detailing the contents, destination, and other important information about the shipment ensures that all parties involved are well-informed. 

Efficient yard management strategically coordinates vehicles, loading equipment, and personnel to optimize the loading and unloading processes and minimize delays and bottlenecks. Properly loading goods, especially considering the bulk and value of B2B shipments, is vital to prevent damage during transit and ensure safe delivery.

Freight Lifecycle Tracking

Advanced tracking systems monitor the entire journey of B2B shipments, particularly for multi-modal freight, which involves multiple transportation methods like road, rail, air, and sea. 

Tracking multi-modal freight has its own challenges and chokepoints, including ports, rail yards, and congested urban areas, where delays are likely. With real-time tracking information, businesses can anticipate and manage delays, keeping all stakeholders informed.

Returns and Exchanges

In B2B, returns and exchanges involve more complex reverse logistics because of the larger quantities of products and higher value of goods. The high cost of returns in B2B can stem from several factors, including lost sales, additional shipping costs, and the labor involved in processing returns.

There's also the opportunity cost of having capital tied up in returned goods rather than new inventory. Ensuring accuracy in order fulfillment and timely delivery is crucial to reducing the frequency of returns. Inaccuracies in shipments lead to direct costs associated with returns, affect customer relationships, and lead to lost future sales.

Specialized B2B Fulfillment Workflows

PIPO (Pallet In, Pallet Out) and cross-docking are specialized workflows that stand out for their efficiency and strategic approach.

PIPO (Pallet In, Pallet Out)

PIPO is a straightforward B2B fulfillment workflow where goods are received on pallets and are stored and shipped in the same unitized form without being broken down into smaller units. As you can understand, this approach significantly streamlines the warehouse process. It reduces the time and labor involved in handling goods, as there is minimal need for unpacking, repacking, or individual item handling. 

PIPO is particularly effective for bulky products or products with a high turnover rate, as it enables quicker movement through the warehouse.

PIPO simplifies inventory management and reduces the risk of product damage, as goods are handled less frequently. It also speeds up the order fulfillment process, leading to faster delivery times.

Diagram of the PIPO workflow in fulfillment


Cross-docking is a practice in the supply chain and logistics sphere where incoming goods are directly loaded onto outbound trucks, trailers, or rail cars, with minimal or no storage in between. 

Businesses leverage this method to minimize storage costs and increase order fulfillment speed substantially. It's particularly beneficial for products with high demand or short shelf lives, as it reduces the time products spend in the warehouse.

Cross-docking leads to a more efficient supply chain, as it eliminates the steps of storing and retrieving products from the warehouse. This results in faster turnaround times and can significantly improve customer satisfaction.

While both warehouse workflows aim to enhance efficiency, they differ in application. PIPO is centered around the concept of minimal handling and storage within the warehouse, ideal for products that are already palletized and require bulk movement. On the other hand, cross-docking focuses on bypassing the storage phase entirely, making it ideal for products that need to be quickly redistributed.

Diagram of Crossdocking Workflow in Fulfillment

Role of EDI and Freight in B2B Fulfillment

In B2B fulfillment, EDI and freight individually play a tremendous role in enabling the efficient and accurate physical movement of goods.

Role of Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the structured transmission of data between organizations electronically. It has replaced manual, paper-based document exchange, ensuring faster, more accurate, and efficient communication of transactional information. EDI covers various documents, from purchase orders to invoices, streamlining business transactions.

The earliest iterations of EDI involved simple electronic transmissions. Today, we have sophisticated networks that integrate seamlessly with ERP systems, continually adapting to the needs of modern commerce. The advent of the internet and cloud computing has further revolutionized EDI, making it more accessible and scalable for businesses of all sizes.

Today, EDI is extensively used in automating order-to-cash cycles, enhancing supply chain visibility, reducing errors, and improving the accuracy of data exchange. It's crucial in logistics for coordinating B2B shipment information, and in retail, it streamlines the procurement process, inventory management, and vendor communications.

Some of the commonly occurring EDI transactions B2B fulfillment include:

  • EDI 850 (Purchase Order): Facilitates the electronic issuance and acceptance of purchase orders.
  • EDI 856 (Advance Ship Notice/ASN): Provides detailed information about pending B2B deliveries, essential for coordinating receiving and inventory management.
  • EDI 810 (Invoice): Enables the electronic sending of invoices, speeding up the billing process.
  • EDI 855 (Purchase Order Acknowledgment): Confirms the receipt and acceptance of a purchase order.
  • EDI 214 (Transportation Carrier Shipment Status Message): Used by carriers to provide updates on the status of B2B shipments.

Role of Freight

B2B freight transportation involves the physical movement of large quantities of goods over potentially long distances. Effective freight management ensures timely delivery, cost efficiency, and the integrity of goods, directly impacting the supply chain's reliability and ability to meet customer demands.

Unlike B2C parcel shipping, which primarily deals with smaller, individual packages intended for consumers, B2B freight typically involves larger, bulk shipments. These B2B shipments often require specialized handling, equipment, and logistics planning. B2B Freight is characterized by its focus on punctuality, cost-effectiveness, and efficient use of space, considering the larger scale and economic impact of these shipments.

A Quick Overview of B2B Freight Types:

  • Air Freight: Ideal for rapidly delivering goods, especially over long distances or when products are time-sensitive. While costly, it offers unmatched speed.
  • Rail Freight: A cost-effective option for transporting large volumes over long distances, especially for goods that are not time-sensitive.
  • Truck/Road Freight: Offers high flexibility and is essential for the 'last mile' delivery in most supply chains. It's versatile and suitable for a range of goods and distances.
  • Ocean Freight: The most economical option for international trade, especially for extremely large B2B shipments. While slower, it's effective for non-perishable bulk goods.

Businesses determine the correct type of freight based on various factors like the nature of the goods, budget constraints, delivery timelines, and geographic considerations. In B2B fulfillment, where stakes are high and efficiency is critical to profitability, the strategic use of different freight modes can significantly influence the success of the supply chain.


B2B order fulfillment services must navigate their fair share of complexities to deliver bulk shipments accurately. Businesses must constantly communicate with clients to ensure deliveries are on time to prevent overstocking or stockouts. While the stakes are generally higher in B2B fulfillment, nurturing good client relationships can yield greater rewards. 

The right technology can further help streamline fulfillment processes by automating communication between discrete business functions and streamlining order fulfillment processes like inventory management, B2B shipping, supplier management, logistics, and more. 

To learn how Hopstack’s warehouse management and fulfillment can help you with B2B fulfillment, contact us for a demo.

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